Monthly Archives: November 2021

Clean Up Garden Now for a More Productive Garden Next Spring!

Don’t put that trowel and rake away just yet! This year’s gardening season may be over, but it can also be a great opportunity to start preparations for next year’s gardening season. Taking care of a few garden clean-up chores now means fewer pests and disease problems which leads to a more productive garden for next spring! 

To help shine the light on garden clean-up, I contacted Kim Leonberger, our UK Agriculture Extension Associate to get the checklist needed to help take the guesswork out of garden clean-up. To hear the full episode, make sure to stay right here for Episode 20 of the Sunshine Gardening Podcast!

  • Why do we clean up?
    • Plant pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses can survive in plant debris and on items in the garden.
    • Cleaning-up helps to remove these pathogen structures so that they do not survive winter and come back to cause issues next year.
    • Failure to clean-up can result in more disease next year.
  • What gardening activities should we consider to help clean-up our gardens for the winter?
    • Remove plants and plant debris.
    • Turn soil when possible.
    • Clean tools, stakes, cages, decorations, pots and other items from the garden.
  • Do not compost diseased plant material.
    • Diseased plant material should be burned, buried, or taken off-site.
    • Home compost bins do not get hot enough to kill these plant pathogens.
    • Large-scale, commercial compost piles do get hot enough to kill pathogens.
    • Some communities have yard waste pick-up, which go to a large compost pile. It is ok to put diseased material here.
  • Cleaning tools
    • Cleaning products (soaps and detergents) remove loose organic matter. Products include dish soap, hand soap, some household cleaners.
    • Disinfection products (disinfectants/sanitizers) have anti-microbial activity and can kill disease-causing micro-organisms. Products include rubbing alcohol (70%), 10% bleach (9 parts water and 1 part bleach), hand sanitizer, some household cleaners.
    • Steps to cleaning tools
      • Clean and scrub to remove organic matter.
      • Rinse to remove any residues.
      • Disinfect – Follow product directions. Most require a dip, soak, or spray. Be sure to note exposure time. A lot of products it is between 3 and 5 minutes. Bleach is the most effective and requires 30-45 seconds. However, bleach is corrosive so a rinse is need to limit effects. Make sure to never mix bleach with other cleaning products as a toxic gas can form.
      • Rinse and Dry.
      • Example of cleaning a tool – Wash with dish soap to remove soil and other organic matter. Rinse and dry. Dip in 10% bleach solution for 30-45 seconds. Rinse in clean water (not the same as before). Dry with a paper towel.

I hope that you enjoyed our discussion today on garden clean-up! A big thank you to Kim Leonberger for being our guest on the Sunshine Gardening Podcast! To view the show notes for Episode 20, make sure to visit me on the blog at Warren County Agriculture! You can find us at

Kim Leonberger, UK Agriculture Extension Associate

FORAGE ALERT: Frost Brings Potential for Prussic Acid Poisoning

Last night many areas of Kentucky experienced their first frost.  Prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) poisoning can occur when the sorghum species (forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, sudangrass, and Johnsongrass) are frosted.  Freezing causes plant cells to rupture and the precursors for prussic acid formation (cyanogenic glycosides) are released.  Please find below some frequently ask questions about prussic poisoning, a note from the UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, and a link to Dr. Arnold’s prussic acid publication.

Frequently Ask Questions:

Can I cut the sorghum species for dry hay after frost?

YES.  Make sure the hay is properly cured before baling.  

Can I make baleage from frost sorghum species?

In most cases the answer is YES. Hydrogen cyanide concentrations are reduced during the ensiling process. However, as noted below, if toxin levels are excessively high at ensiling, forage should be tested prior to feeding.

How long do I need to wait to graze freshly frosted sorghum species?

Freshly frosted sorghum species should NOT be grazed until the affected tissue has dried down. This usually occurs 5-7 days after frost. Since fields are often not uniformly frosted and several frost events can occur over several days, make sure and wait until 5-7 days after the last frost event.

Drs. Arnold and Gaskill also has an excellent publication on prussic acid poisoning that can be found at

Note from UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab:

This note can be found at  


Prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid all are terms describing the same toxin or “poison”.  A number of common plants, including sudangrass, johnsongrass, sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids easily accumulate the “cyanogenic glycosides” in the epidermal or outer cells of the plant.  Further inside the leaf tissue in the mesophyll cells are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the actual poison.  When the plant undergoes a stressful event such as cutting, wilting, freezing, drought, crushing, trampling, chewing or chopping, the plant cells rupture which allows the cyanogenic compounds and the enzymes to combine and produce prussic acid.  Once consumed, the toxin goes immediately to the bloodstream and blocks a necessary step in the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the blood to the cells.  The animal essentially suffocates from lack of oxygen.  Ruminants are much more susceptible to prussic acid poisoning because they have enzymes in the rumen capable of converting the cyanogenic compounds in the plant into hydrogen cyanide.

Clinical signs of cyanide poisoning can occur in as quickly as 15-20 minutes and up to a few hours after consuming the toxic forage.  Usually the affected animals are found dead but, if observed early, may show rapid, difficult breathing, frothing at the mouth, muscle tremors, staggering then collapse.  The mucous membranes (for example-the gums) are bright pink and the blood will be a bright cherry red color.  A definitive diagnosis is usually made by testing the suspect forage for high levels of cyanide.  This test can be performed at a diagnostic laboratory (the UKVDL in Lexington and Breathitt Lab in Hopkinsville both offer this) and forage samples should be immediately frozen and shipped frozen.  It is difficult to diagnose from blood, animal tissues or rumen contents because it disappears rapidly after death.  If prussic acid poisoning is suspected in a live animal, a veterinarian has treatments available that can re-establish oxygen transport at the cellular level. 

Prussic acid is most often associated with sorghums (forage and grain) and sudangrass but many plants can be cyanogenic including:

Plants with Cyanogenic Potential


Apple                                Johnsongrass

Apricot                              Lima bean

Arrow Grass                      Peach

Birdsfoot trefoil                 Poison suckleya

Bahia                                Service berry

Cherry                               Sudangrass hybrids                                                                                                                

Elderberry                         Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids

Flax                                   Shattercane

Forage Sorghums             Velvet grass

Grain Sorghums                Vetch seed

Hydrangea                         White Clover


Important Points to Remember:

  1. Leaves produce much more prussic acid than stems, especially young upper leaves.  New shoots often contain high concentrations of prussic acid.
    1. Never graze sorghums less than 18” in height (“knee high”) to significantly reduce the potential for poisoning.
    2. Feed hungry cattle hay or grain before allowing them to graze forages which may contain high levels of prussic acid therefore reducing the amount of cyanide consumed.
  1. Drought increases the chance for prussic acid because slowed growth and the inability of the plant to mature favors the formation of cyanogenic compounds in the leaves.
  1. Frost/Freezing is especially dangerous because the plant cells actually rupture allowing prussic acid to be released.  Do not graze until well after the entire plant and new shoots are killed and have turned brown.
  1. Plants grown in high nitrogen soil  (and low in phosphorus and potassium) tend to have more prussic acid potential.  Splitting nitrogen applications will reduce the risk of toxicity.  Herbicides such as 2,4 D can also increase prussic acid for several weeks following application.
  1. Chopping or ensiling plants high in prussic acid will reduce toxin levels if properly cured.  However dangerous levels of prussic acid may remain if extremely high before cutting.  If in doubt, analyze suspect forages before feeding.
  1. Johnsongrass and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids also have the potential for nitrate accumulation, especially during drought conditions.  Nitrate tends to accumulate in the lower stem, so cutting hay very short, or overgrazing so that cattle have to eat the lower stem bases ( the “stubble”) can cause more intake of nitrate and signs similar to prussic acid poisoning.